About Bone Grafting
What is Bone Grafting?
Over a period of time, the jaw bone associated with missing teeth atrophies and reabsorbs leaving a condition where there is both poor quality and quantity of bone available for dental implants. With bone grafting our oral surgeons have the opportunity to not only replace bone where it is missing but have the ability to promote new bone growth in that location. This gives us the opportunity to place implants of proper length and width and gives us a chance to restore functionality and aesthetic appearance.
Types of Bone Grafts
Autogenous Bone Grafts
Autogenous bone grafts (also known as autografts) are from your own bone that is taken from somewhere else in the body. The bone is typically harvested from the chin, jaw, lower leg bone, hip, or skull. Autogenous bone grafts are advantageous in that the graft material is your own live bone, meaning it contains living cellular elements that enhance bone growth eliminating the risk of your body rejecting the graft material since it comes from you. A disadvantage to the autograft is that it requires another surgical procedure to harvest bone from another part of the body.
Allogenic bone also known as allograft) is actually dead bone harvested from a cadaver that is then processed using a freeze-dry method to extract the water via a vacuum. Unlike autogenous bone, allogenic bone cannot produce new bone on its own. Rather, it serves as the basis over which bone from the surrounding bony walls can grow to fill the void.
Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM)/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA)
Demineralized Bone Matrix/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft is processed allograft bone, containing collagen, proteins, and growth factors that are extracted from the allograft bone. It is available as a powder, putty, chips, or as a gel that can be injected into the body via a syringe.
Xenogenic bone is derived from non-living bone of another species like a cow. The bone is processed at very high temperatures to avoid your immune system rejecting it. Like allogenic grafts, xenogenic grafts serve as a framework for bone from the surrounding area to grow and fill the void.
Both allogenic and xenogenic bone grafting have the advantage of not needing a second procedure to harvest your own bone, as with autografts.
Bone Graft Substitutes
There are many substitutes to real bone (like many synthetic materials) that are safe and proven alternatives that the doctors can discuss with you a consultation
Graft composites consist of other bone graft materials and growth factors to achieve the benefits of a variety of substances. Some combinations may include: collagen/ceramic composite, which closely resembles the composition of natural bone, DBM combined with bone marrow cells, which aids in the growth of new bone, or a collagen/ceramic/autograft composite.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are proteins which are naturally produced in the body that promote and regulate bone formation and healing. Synthetic materials have the advantage of not requiring individuals to have a second procedure to harvest bone, reducing the risk for complications and pain. Our oral surgeons will determine which type of bone graft material is best suited to your needs.